Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database (Scotland), 1981-
- Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database (Scotland), 1981-
- Principal investigator(s):
- Information Services Division - NHS National Services Scotland
- Data collector(s):
- NHS National Services Scotland; National Records of Scotland
- Health services and medical care - Health
Abstract copyright ADRN.
The Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database contains obstetric histories relating to all mothers giving birth in Scotland from 1981 onwards together with linked records relating to all of her offspring. The linked database contains:
- 1981 onwards: SMR02 – Episode level data on maternity inpatient and day case discharges from obstetric specialties (approximately 2,500,000 records)
- 1981–1991: SMR11 – Episode level data on discharges from special care baby units (approximately 875,000 records)
- 1992–1996: SMR11UV – Universal record for all babies born in Scotland and SMR11EP – Additional return for babies admitted to Special Care Baby Units (approximately 38,000 records)
- 1996–2003: SMR11 – Episode level data on discharges from Special Baby Care Units or babies with congenital anomalies (approximately 110,000 records)
- 2003 onwards: Scottish Birth Record – Universal record for all babies born in Scotland (approximately 775,000 records)
- 1985–2010: Scottish Stillbirth and Infant Death Survey (approximately 20,000 records)
- 1981 onwards: National Records of Scotland Birth Records. (approximately 2,250,000 records)
- 1981 onwards: National Records of Scotland Stillbirth Records (approximately 14,000 records)
- 1981 onwards: National Records of Scotland infant death records, i.e. where a baby dies in the first year of life (approximately 18,000 records)
In total, the database contains around 8.5 million records.
The Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database provides wealth obstetric information on the mothers and their babies born in Scotland. The database contains linked datasets from 1981 onwards. Some datasets were added to the database at a later date, as summarised above.
In 1997 revisions were made to the dataset in order to better fit NHS Scotland reporting requirements. Separate data catalogues pre and post 1997 for the Maternity Inpatient and Day Case dataset (SMR02) and Neonatal Inpatient dataset (SMR11) which reflect these changes are available in the Documentation section of the single database entries.
The Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database is updated continuously as datasets are submitted as all files are now populated with CHI. Individual datasets within the database are updated at different intervals.
The following geographical measures are available:
- NHS Board of Residence
- Council Area
- Local Government District
- UK Parliamentary Constituency
- Scottish Parliamentary Constituency
- Electoral Ward
- Data Zone
- 2001 Census Output Area
- 1991 Census Output Area
- CHP (Community Health Partnerships)
- Grid References
- Urban / Rural Codes
- Carstairs Deprivation 2001
- Carstairs Deprivation 1991
- Scottish Index of Deprivation measures
On April 1st 2006, the configuration of NHS Boards was changed with NHS Argyll & Clyde being dissolved. The larger part of its area moved into NHS Greater Glasgow with the remainder moving to NHS Highland.
In April 1996 diagnostic codes changed from ICD9 to ICD10. Further information on ICD10 is available in the Documentation section.
The ISD Data Quality Assurance team is responsible for and ensuring SMR datasets are accurate, consistent and comparable across time and between sources. As the Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database consists of a variety of different datasets there are some data quality issues. Refer to the individual entries for ISD’s Maternity and Inpatient Day Case dataset, Neonatal Inpatient dataset, Scottish Birth Record and National Records of Scotland Birth Records for more information.
The CHI numbers held in the database is variable in terms of quality and completeness with it being very poor in parts, particularly prior to 1981. ISD are currently going through an exercise to get CHI populated fully across the database from 1981 onwards.
Definition of Terms
Stillbirths – Section 56(1) of the Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Scotland) Act 1965 defined a stillbirth as a child which had issued forth from its mother after the 28th week of pregnancy and which did not breathe or show any other sign of life. The Still-Birth (Definition) Act 1992, which came into effect on 1 October 1992, amended Section 56(1) of the 1965 Act (and other relevant UK legislation), replacing the reference to the 28th week with a reference to the 24th week.
Perinatal deaths – Stillbirths and deaths in the first week of life.
Neonatal deaths - Deaths in the first four weeks of life.
Early neonatal deaths – Deaths in the first week of life.
Late neonatal deaths – Deaths in weeks two to four of life.
Post-neonatal deaths – Deaths after the first four weeks but before the end of the first year.
Infant deaths - Deaths in the first year of life.
Late foetal deaths – Infants born dead at 20-23 weeks of pregnancy or earlier in pregnancy if the birth weight is 500g or more.
Research Usage and Linkage
The Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database is used by NHS Scotland and the Scottish Government for planning, epidemiology, provision of service and providing comparative information to help improve efficiencies in health care services. The data is also used locally by NHS Boards for a range of operational purposes.
The database provides a wealth of information relating to pregnancy, delivery and the baby’s first few months of life and it is regularly used for research, epidemiology, clinical audit and improvement of care for expectant mothers and babies. Research topics vary greatly: from examining the risk associated with induction of labour at different gestations, to pregnancy outcomes and maternal cardiovascular risk.
The different datasets held in the Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database are linked together by ISD. Records are updated approximately every six months using a combination of deterministic and probability matching.
The Scottish Morbidity Database and the Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database can be linked together. In this way, those patients with a particular diagnosis or any other event that might be of interest can be linked to either of these databases to identify other previous or subsequent hospital activity such as admissions, deaths, cancers and pregnancies.
Other acute datasets, such as the General Acute Inpatient and Day Case (SMR01) and Outpatient Attendance dataset (SMR00) are not routinely added to this database but are often linked on an ad hoc basis by ISD Scotland.
Coverage, universe, methodology
- Time period:
- Single Datasets: 1975 - ; Linked Dataset: 1981 -
- Observation units:
Events and processes
- Kind of data:
Individual (micro) level
Obstetric histories of all mothers giving birth in Scotland from 1981.
- Time dimensions:
Repeated cross-sectional study
- Sampling procedures:
No sampling (total universe)
- Number of units:
- Approximately 8.5 millions of records in total
- Method of data collection:
Compilation or synthesis of existing material
The different datasets held in the Maternity and Neonatal Linked Database are linked together by ISD. Records are updated approximately every six months using a combination of deterministic and probability matching. Further information about the sources collection is available in the single entries of the datasets linked.
- Frequency of release:
- Data Updated:
Administrative and access information
- Crown copyright
- Access conditions:
- Contact the Network
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By principal investigator(s):
- Scottish Health Informatics Programme (2012) A Blueprint for Health Records Research in Scotland, Scottish Health Informatics Programme.
Resulting from secondary analysis:
- Smith, G.C.S., Wood, A. M., Pell, J. P., Dobbie, R. (2006) 'Sudden infant death syndrome and complications in other pregnancies', The Lancet, 366(9503), pp. 2107-2111. 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67888-9
- Smith, G., Shah, I., White, I., Pell, J., Crossley, J., Dobbie, R. (2007) 'Maternal and biochemical predictors of antepartum stillbirth among nulliparous women in relation to gestational age of foetal death', BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 114(6), pp. 705-714. 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2007.01343.x
- Gray, R., Bonellie, S., Chalmers, J., Greer, I., Jarvis, S., Williams, C. (2008) 'Social inequalities in preterm birth in Scotland 1980-2003:', BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 115(1), pp. 82-90. 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2007.01582.x
- Norman, J.E., Morris, C., Chalmers, J. (2009) 'The Effect of Changing Patterns of Obstetric Care in Scotland (1980-2004) on Rates of Preterm Birth and Its Neonatal Consequences:', PLoS Medicine, 6(9). 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000153
- Pasupathy, D., Wood, A.M., Pell, J.P., Fleming, M., Smith, G.C.S. (2009) 'Rates of and Factors Associated With Delivery-Related Perinatal Death Among Term Infants in Scotland', Journal of the Americal Medical Association, 302(6). 10.1001/jama.2009.1111
- Pasupathy, D., Wood, A.M., Pell, J.P., Fleming, M., Smith, G.C.S. (2011) 'Advanced maternal age and the risk of perinatal death due to intrapartum anoxia at term', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65(3), pp. 241-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.097170
- Riordan, D.V., Morris, C., Hattie, J., Stark, C. (2012) 'Interbirth spacing and offspring mental health outcomes', Psychological Medicine, 42(12), pp. 2511-2521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712000888
- Riordan, D.V., Morris, C., Hattie, J., Stark, C. (2012) 'Family size and perinatal circumstances, as mental health risk factors in a Scottish birth cohort', Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(6), pp. 975-983. 10.1007/s00127-011-0405-5